Thursday, September 19, 2019

Ibm History :: essays research papers

1890-1938: The early years IBM was incorporated in the state of New York on June 15, 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. But its origins can be traced back to 1890, during the height of the Industrial Revolution, when the United States was experiencing waves of immigration. The U.S. Census Bureau knew its traditional methods of counting would not be adequate for measuring the population, so it sponsored a contest to find a more efficient means of tabulating census data. The winner was Herman Hollerith, a German immigrant and Census Bureau statistician, whose Punch Card Tabulating Machine used an electric current to sense holes in punch cards and keep a running total of data. Capitalizing on his success, Hollerith formed the Tabulating Machine Co. in 1896. In 1911, Charles R. Flint, a noted trust organizer, engineered the merger of Hollerith's company with two others, Computing Scale Co. of America and International Time Recording Co. The combined Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co., or C-T-R, manufactured and sold machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers and, of course, tabulators and punch cards. Based in New York City, the company had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, N.Y.; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Mich.; Washington, D.C., and Toronto, Canada. When the diversified businesses of C-T-R proved difficult to manage, Flint turned for help to the former No. 2 executive at the National Cash Register Co., Thomas J. Watson. In 1914, Watson, age 40, joined the company as general manager. The son of Scottish immigrants, Watson had been a top salesman at NCR, but left after clashing with its autocratic leader, John Henry Patterson. However, Watson did adopt some of Patterson's more effective business tactics: generous sales incentives, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker. Watson boosted company spirit with employee sports teams, family outings and a company band. He preached a positive outlook, and his favorite slogan, "THINK," became a mantra for C-T-R's employees. Watson also stressed the importance of the customer, a lasting IBM tenet. He understood that the success of the client translated into the success of his company, a belief that, years later, manifested itself in the popular adage, "Nobody was ever fired for buying from IBM." Within 11 months of joining C-T-R, Watson became its president. The company focused on providing large-scale, custom-built tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Origins Of The Computer :: essays research papers

The Origins of the Computer This report is to be distributed freely and not to be sold for profit ect. This report can be modifyed as long as you keep in mind that you didn't write it. And you are not to hand in this report claiming credit for it heheh.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Roman Empire, founded by Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in Western Europe for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and economics. Almost the entirety of the civilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, and independence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe and the Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with public amenities previously unheard of courts, theaters, circuses, and public baths. And these were now large permanent masonry buildings as were the habitations, tall apartment houses covering whole city blocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This architectural revolution brought about by the Romans required two innovations: the invention of a new building method called concrete vaulting and the organization of labor and capital on a large scale so that huge projects could be executed quickly after the plans of a single master architect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roman concrete was a fluid mixture of lime and small stones poured into the hollow centers of walls faced with brick or stone and over curved wooden molds, or forms, to span spaces as vaults. The Mediterranean is an active volcanic region, and a spongy, light, tightly adhering stone called pozzolana was used to produce a concrete that was both light and extremely strong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Romans had developed potsalana concrete about 100 B.C. but at first used it only for terrace walls and foundations. It apparently was emperor Nero who first used the material on a grand scale to rebuild a region of the city of Rome around his palace, the expansive Domus Aurea, after the great fire of AD 64 which he said to have set. Here broad streets, regular blocks of masonry apartment houses, and continuous colonnaded porticoes were erected according to a single plan and partially at state expense. The Domus Aurea itself was a labyrinth of concrete vaulted rooms, many in complex geometric forms. An extensive garden with a lake and forest spread around it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The architect Severus seems to have been in charge of this great project. Emperors and emperors' architects succeeding Nero and Severus continued and expanded their work of rebuilding and regularizing Rome. Vespasian (emperor AD 63-79) began the Colosseum. Which I have a model bad of. Built by prisoners from the Jewish wars the 50,000 Colosseum is one of the most intresting architectural The Origins Of The Computer :: essays research papers The Origins of the Computer This report is to be distributed freely and not to be sold for profit ect. This report can be modifyed as long as you keep in mind that you didn't write it. And you are not to hand in this report claiming credit for it heheh.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Roman Empire, founded by Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in Western Europe for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and economics. Almost the entirety of the civilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, and independence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe and the Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with public amenities previously unheard of courts, theaters, circuses, and public baths. And these were now large permanent masonry buildings as were the habitations, tall apartment houses covering whole city blocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This architectural revolution brought about by the Romans required two innovations: the invention of a new building method called concrete vaulting and the organization of labor and capital on a large scale so that huge projects could be executed quickly after the plans of a single master architect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roman concrete was a fluid mixture of lime and small stones poured into the hollow centers of walls faced with brick or stone and over curved wooden molds, or forms, to span spaces as vaults. The Mediterranean is an active volcanic region, and a spongy, light, tightly adhering stone called pozzolana was used to produce a concrete that was both light and extremely strong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Romans had developed potsalana concrete about 100 B.C. but at first used it only for terrace walls and foundations. It apparently was emperor Nero who first used the material on a grand scale to rebuild a region of the city of Rome around his palace, the expansive Domus Aurea, after the great fire of AD 64 which he said to have set. Here broad streets, regular blocks of masonry apartment houses, and continuous colonnaded porticoes were erected according to a single plan and partially at state expense. The Domus Aurea itself was a labyrinth of concrete vaulted rooms, many in complex geometric forms. An extensive garden with a lake and forest spread around it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The architect Severus seems to have been in charge of this great project. Emperors and emperors' architects succeeding Nero and Severus continued and expanded their work of rebuilding and regularizing Rome. Vespasian (emperor AD 63-79) began the Colosseum. Which I have a model bad of. Built by prisoners from the Jewish wars the 50,000 Colosseum is one of the most intresting architectural

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Characteristics of Business Leadership

Characteristics of Business Leadership BUS302-024016 October 30, 2011 Characteristics of Business Management The purpose of this paper is to show a comparison of two successful businesses. Borders Books and Amazon. com are two companies that both sold books but used different methods in operating their businesses. Even though they both were successful businesses, both companies had different leadership styles, visions and goals. Out of the two businesses, only one remain successful and present today. In this paper, I will show how both businesses started, how the leaders differ in leadership styles and techniques, and how Amazon continues to be a great success today. Description of the Businesses I will describe each business and how each business started. I will also describe three main challenges each company faced while establishing or running the business. Amazon. com was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos as an online bookstore. As CEO he has built it into the largest retailer on the web, selling everything from groceries to electronics and shoes. Jeff Bezos was working in a quantitive analysis group at an investment firm, when he saw an opportunity to sell books on the internet. In 1994 he went on a cross-country drive from New York to Seattle to start Amazon. He typed his business plan as he went. And he picked up $300,000 dollars from his parents in Fort Worth, Texas. He set up his business in his garage and began selling books via the internet. His business became worth $4. 4 billion according to Forbes' latest billionaire rankings in 2009. Since the start of Amazon. om, Jeff Bezos came very close to failure. The company was on the brink of bankruptcy. Jeff Bezos lost a total of $550 million in startup cost by November 1999. But inspite of that, Time magazine named Jeff Bezos † Person of the year† a month later. Borders Books was founded by Louis Borders, who was the leader of Borders Books and got his start in Ann Arbor Michigan in 1971. Louis Borders and his brother Tom Borders opened a used bookstore, accord ing to the book eBoys by Randall Stross. Louis Borders had a degree in math from the University of Michigan. In his store, he went to work designing artificial intelligence software for managing the inventory of a supersize bookstore, and by doing so made opening more bookstores possible. For fifteen years he and his brother operated Border Books in Ann Arbor and sold software to other stores. Borders started opening more stores. In 1988, Borders recruited Robert DiRomualdo to lead the company's expansion. Roberts DiRomualdo was later credited with leading the company's rise to national prominence in the 1990s. In 1992, Kmart Corp; which bought Waldenbooks in 1984, purchased the 21-store chain for an estimated $190 million , the New York Times reported at that time. Once sold, Border Books went through several changes including the name changing to Borders Group Inc. and changes in CEOs. Between January 1998 to January 1999 Borders expanded by adding 52 superstores. This was the biggest one-year expansion in its history. By January 1999, the company had 256 superstores averaging $256 in sales per square foot. In May 1998, Borders launched an online presence for the first time. Borders had several different CEOs until Mike Edwards became interim CEO in January of 2010. Leadership Styles This paragraph will explain the leaders' leadership styles and discuss how they have adapted to cultural differences and how they operates their businesses effectively in global markets. Mike Edwards became interim CEO of Borders in January 2010. This was a time when sales were already at a decline and the company had already been close to filing bankruptcy but avoided it by cutting costs and conserving cash. The company was already at an organizational decline. Prior to him becoming CEO, Borders had already lauched an online presence for the first time in May 1998. Since then, severing ties with Amazon, the company launched a new Borders. com. So after Mike Edwards was named CEO of subsidiary Borders Inc. in June 2010, Borders launched e-book store, started selling e-readers and set strategies to get 17 percent market share in e-books within a year. Doing this online business was with a hope to increase sales nationally and globally. But I believe a mistake was made by continuing to run the business somewhat the same, but just cutting cost. Mike Edwards didn't make the changes necessary o adapt to cultural differences and was not able to operate the business effectively in global markets. Previously Borders had business base in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore but had to sell off its business in those areas. Due to the condition Borders was in when Edwards came on as CEO, didn't allow for a great chance of bouncing back from their losse s. Mike Edwards' style was to hurry and cut cost and to do quickly what he could to save the company. Really, he had no choice but to do this quickly. Jeff Bezos has a style of having a customer-focused culture and he continues to use the leadership methods they have used for years. He makes it difficult for some publicly traded companies to have the right strategy. He makes sure that Amazon. com follows different strategies to acquire business but at the same time adapting to any cultural differences that take place. He operates the business by reaching out to different global areas through his web based business. Jeff Bezos make sure he keeps up with the competition by changing the company's strategies quickly to adapt to any changes in technology, customer needs and competition. He believes that experimenting different things will attract different cultures. Jeff Bezos believes that cultures are very stable. New people who come to the company may stay or leave. But he states that overtime, you build up this momentum around a culture that is self-perpetuating. This is a way to adjust to to different cultural differnces as well. Leadership, Management, and Motivation Management is getting work done through others efficiently and effectively. Leading involves inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals. Jeff Bezos, who founded Amazon. com in 1994, states that his view is that every company requires a long-term view. He feels that if you're going to take a long-term orientation, you have to be willing to stay heads down and ignore a wide array of critics, even well-meaning critics. If you don't have a willingness to be misundertood for a long period of time, then you can't have a long-term orientation. He also states that you're also gonna have to have a willingness to repeatedly fail if you're gonna experiment. For some, this is a exciting and motivating culture. Also, he no longer makes all the plans. He has a group called the S Team that (Senior Team) which stays abreast of what the company is doing. This team meets for about four hours every Tuesday. And once or twice a year the S team gets together in a tw-day meeting to explore ideas. This is an example of group decision making. On the other hand, Mike Edwards' focus was to stick to the business plan that he said works. He stated that they were fighting to the end and hoping that a reorganization plan would be approved. By cutting back and closing some stores would help Borders to exit bankruptcy. He did state that Borders mistake was to open so many stores. He immediatley took action and began an aggressive cost-cutting plan to close stores and lay-off workers. Leader’s Impact Jeff Bezos made an impact on the world by allowing customers worldwide via the web to purchase books, and everything from groceries, electronics and shoes and more. This allowed customers to shop from the comfort of their own home. This was a great convenience for customers around the globe. Also, Louis Borders vision had an impact on the world as well. When Borders and his brother Tom started Borders Books, Louis Bothers took his knowledge and designed artificial intelligience that would later benefit other stores by selling them the software to use for their businesses as well. Boarder Books stores allowed customers to purchase all types of books and also to have an peaceful environment to enjoy reading their books. Borders Books later intergrated music and movies into some of their stores. Even though Mike Edwards didn't become CEO of subsidairy Borders Inc. until June 2010, he made an impact on the internal structure by taking drastic measures to save the company by closing alot of the stores and laying-off employees. This not only affected the employees but the consumers who shopped at Borders as well. All these drastic actions also affected the morale of the employees and stores that remained until Borders announced it's liquidation in July 2011. } References Bomey, Nathan (2011). Borders' rise and fall: a timeline of the bookstore chain's 40-year history. http://Ann Arbor. com/business-review/Borders-rise-and-fall-a-timeline-of-the-bookstore-chains-40-year-history Bomey, Nathan (2011). Exclusive interview with Borders

Monday, September 16, 2019

International Globalization Marketing Plan of Batik Essay

Our mission is to establish a Global Batik Boutique industry with world-class quality in fashion design to support corporate clients and stylist society of upper market. We would like to be known as an industry driven by social values. We strive to be a â€Å"Choice of Retailer† in developing long-term Batik business relationships with our customers, which are founded on our ability to help identify the style-fashion and recommend the best wares and look’s for our customers. We strive for continuous improvement in providing â€Å"New Design† and â€Å"Good Quality† materials selection through a â€Å"Right-on-Time † fashion delivery. Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd need to grow their revenue by exporting Batik products and expanding into new markets segmentation. With faster communication, transportation and financial flows, the company is planning penetrate into United Kingdom Consumer market on establishment of Batik made garment products . 1. 0 Company Background Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd (BEK Sdn Bhd ) is a Malaysian owned company, a batik fashion and boutique consulting firm head quarters in Cyberjaya, Malaysia, specializing in all kind of batik design garment products. BEK Sdn Bhd incorporated in 2001, has an Sales Office and Manufacturing plant at Kajang.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Kill Bill vs Hamlet

Hamlet and Kill Bill â€Å"Revenge is a dish best served cold. † The Sicilian proverb used as Kill Bill Vol. 2's tagline perfectly points out a tragic flaw shared by Shakespeare's Hamlet and Quentin Tarentino's modern hero: Bill (from Kill Bill Vol. 1 and Kill Bill Vol. 2). In Kill Bill Beatrice is a killer belonging to a team of assassins lead by a man by the name of Bill. Beatrice and her master fall in love and one night while she is on a job, she discovers she is pregnant.She realizes the world of assassins is no place for a mother and makes the decision to leave the team and leave Bill. When Beatrice does not return to him, Bill searches everywhere for her, not willing to accept she may have been killed on the job. He finally finds her only to learn that she is pregnant and about to be married! From this, Bill derives his motivation for revenge. Hamlet obviously has more of a just cause to act on, where Bill, and really all the corrupt characters in his world, act based o n selfishness.Though However much they may differ, their likeness is shown through choices made when taking their time in exacting revenge, when they let their situations drive them to madness, when they refuse to act without confirmation, and when they let their arrogance and need for revenge blind them. While similarities between Hamlet and Bill's moral standings are little to none, it is the element of revenge that reveals the shared traits that bring these men to their demise.The realization that his lover had not only left him without a single word, but had only months later been knocked up and engaged to wed, sent Bill into a maddened outrage. He confronted Beatrice outside of the church where she, her soon to be husband, and all of his family were having a wedding rehersal. He tells Beatrice he just wants to see her happy and that he'll let her go. Once Beatrice is back inside the church Bill sends in his team to kill them all. Bill walks in himself and shoots Beatrice in the head.Obviously this cruelty is nothing like the madness Hamlet experienced after finding out the truth behind his father's death. His became more of a depressed mind. He would sulk around day after day saying outlandish things to people who tried to comfort him. It seemed that suicide was not far from his thoughts. Another thing his madness led him to do was to force himself upon the one he thought he loved: Ophelia. This flaw in Bill and Hamlet's characters affected them in very different ways. However this is not surprising, for they were certainly very different people.The point is, these two men let these unfortunate happenings make them both forget their minds for a time. However rash these two men might be under the right circumstances, it is more in their nature to procrastinate. It just so happens that even with that direct shot to the head, Beatrice did not die. Bill has one of his assassins sneak into her hospital room, fully prepared to finish the job. However when the a ssassin informs him of his former lover's condition, he tells her to abort, saying, â€Å"Y'all beat the hell out of that woman, but you didn't kill her.And I put a bullet in her head, but her heart just kept on beating. We've done a lot of things to this lady. And if she ever wakes up, we'll do a whole lot more. But one thing we won't do, is sneak into her room in the night like a filthy rat, and kill her in her sleep. And the reason we won't do that thing, is because that thing would lower us. † It is safe to say that even with absolutely no regard for human life, Bill is a man of honor and integrity. Hamlet too decides to spare the life of his victim for the time being.He finds himself alone in a room with his uncle, the prey not privy to the predator's presence. However the King had just prayed for forgiveness of his sins, and Hamlet was determined to make him burn in hell. Instead of getting the job done when they had their chance, these men let their ideals and over-con fidence lead to their destruction. Bill's virtues would typically make a good man even more righteous, so naturally this quality has a negative effect towards his outcome. Because of his decision, Beatrice is allowed to wake up from her coma to find out that Bill has taken her baby.Determined to get her baby back and to get her own revenge, she sets out after Bill. Along the way, one by one, she slays her fellow assassins who have wronged her. All this time Bill has plenty of opportunities to set a trap for her or to simply find her and finish her, but he waits, just as Hamlet waits, wasting his constant access to his uncle, the King. The last bit of procrastination that only prolongs the lives of the victims, increasing the chance of failure with every permitted breath; the last tie between these two tragedies, is the need for confirmation.Rather than acting when they still had the advantage, Bill and Hamlet both insist on getting answers. When Beatrice finally makes it to Bill's h ouse, he first allows her quality time with her five year old daughter, leaving her completely vulnerable. When the girl is asleep and Beatrice leaves the room, he injects her with truth serum and questions her on everything that happened and why, all the while having access to a number of different weapons. It is not until they are both seated across from one another, both with sword in hand, that any attempt is made to kill.This is also a perfect reflection of Bill's sense of honor. In Hamlet's similar situation based on finding the truth, Hamlet refuses to make a move on the unsuspecting King until he has judged his reaction based on a play put on that closely resembles the murder of Hamlet's father. Of course after having seen the play, set up by Hamlet himself, the King sends Hamlet away to his death. In the final moments of both these tragic stories, both Bill and Hamlet meet their end. The outcomes do differ slightly.Hamlet does end up carrying out revenge on his uncle, sendi ng him to the depths of hell, while Bill's prey lives on. One thing that makes up for Bill's lack of success is that after the lethal blow had been cast upon him, he seems to realize that he had a choice between dieing and watching the one he loves die. It seemed like more of a success to him that his love got to live, and he got to spend his last moments with her. However, that is not to be taken as acceptance of death (because right up until he was critically wounded, he wanted Beatrice dead) or admittance of wrongdoing.These characters definitely have only themselves to blame for their demise. The traits of these men that led them to make bad decisions are known as their tragic flaws. Nonetheless, these so-called flaws aren't necessarily horrible attributes and definitely don't make a person bad or flawed. In fact most human beings display all these qualities in some degree. This is why, no matter what generation, nationality, race, sex, or culture; past, present, or future, we w ill always be able to relate to, and learn a great deal about ourselves from tragedy.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Hurricane Katrina Essay

Mike Mulally 10-11-19 In 2005 Hurricane Katrina swept through the city of New Orleans and destroyed the lives of thousands. Katrina was one of the largest hurricanes and natural disasters in the history of the United States (Wikipedia, 2009). While most of the casualties’ occurred during the actual storm, still a many took place days after, and were do to the fact that the local, state, and national government were slow to respond. This slow response was due to the nature of federalism. I believe Americans got a glimpse at how federalism and bureaucracy have flaws. These imperfections will be discussed in the pages below. The PBS documentary â€Å"The Storm,† depicts the destruction Hurricane Katrina caused, as well as what went wrong with the evacuation and rescue of New Orleans residents. Local, state, and national government officials were interviewed, such as New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, New Orleans governor Kathleen Blanco, and FEMA Director Michael Brown. Each official gave his or her version of why events happened the way they did. Some of the their accounts contradicted each other. I believe everyone was just looking out for him or herself, trying to save face. This seems to be a common problem in American politics. I will next explore how federalisms can be a inconvenience in a situation such as a natural disaster. Federalism by definition â€Å"is a system in which governmental powers are divided between a central government and smaller units, like states†(Greenberg & Page, 2009, Ch. 3). The officials at all levels of the government were somehow confused during Katrina on who exactly was in charge. Was it New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, FEMA Director Michael Brown, was it President Bush? † (Marcela, 2005). There was also a lack of communication between the different levels of government, which, as was talked about in class, is an obvious downside or barrier to federalism (Oxendine, 2009). In a situation like a natural disaster, communication is key. If one cannot communicate with another, how is anything supposed to be accomplished? Having several l evels of government involved just makes everything in a disaster situation more complicated. I believe the U. S. needs a more centralized form of a disaster agency. If a natural disaster is to happen there ought to be one plan of action carried out by one agency. Having this central organization would have alleviated much of the confusion and frustration that we witnessed with Katrina. According to Director Brown, after Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans’ local government did not communicate very well with FEMA officials. Brown says he was never told what sorts of manpower or supplies were needed (Marcela 2009). However Louisiana National Guard Adjutant General Bennett Landreneau stated in his interview that he specifically sent requests to FEMA for what help was required. A few days after he was interviewed he sent in the documentation that proves he did indeed ask specific needs from FEMA (Marcela 2009). FEMA Director Brown lied on television. So often politicians lie about issues, why can’t they ever own up to their mistakes and just tell the truth. I believe the American public deserves to know the truth on issues, especially when dealing with something like Hurricane Katrina. In a natural disaster it is at first the state that has control. If the state becomes overwhelmed and can no longer control the situation, the state then needs to clearly articulate what services they are in need of, and that is when FEMA will then intervene. Several days after the storm, Director Brown apparently believed the state of Louisiana had the situation under control (Marcela, 2005). While the Mayor and Governor thought FEMA was going to step in and help. There was a period of time where nobody knew who was in command. Consequently there was a period of time where the many of the people of New Orleans had no food, water or shelter, and that is when many lives were lost. It bewilders one to think that this sort of miscommunication and misunderstanding could happen to a country like the United States. One would assume that our country would have one of the best disaster protocols in the world, considering our global supremacy. I will now touch on another part of U. S. government that I consider to have flaws, and that is bureaucracy. A bureaucracy as defined by Greenberg & Page (2009) is â€Å" A large, complex organization characterized by a hierarchical set of offices, each with a specific task, controlled through a clear chain of command, and where appointment and advancement of personnel is based on merit† (Ch. 13). Individuals are appointed not elected and therein lies a problem. Anyone that the president chooses can be in a position of power. Many believe Michael Brown was absolutely not qualified for the position of FEMA Director (Greenberg & Page, 2009, Ch. 13). After all he had no formal training in disaster relief or anything of that sort in his resume. Positions like FEMA director should have to have some sort of qualifications. One cannot just be put into that situation like Director Brown was. I believe that positions such as director should be an elected one. When someone who is not qualified is put in charge of one of biggest natural disasters in U. S. history, nothing good can come from it. And indeed that is exactly what happened, total chaos and confusion took place due to Director Michael Brown’s incompetence. After the attacks of 9/11 President Bush reorganized FEMA into a Bureaucracy. FEMA was downgraded and became a sub department of homeland security. Many believe this reorganization really hurt FEMA. Personnel, IT systems and other resources were dramatically reduced due to President Bush’s budget cutting agenda. The President also cut project impact, a program started by FEMA to help communities become disaster resistant, due to tax cuts (Marcella 2009). In addition 80 million dollars was taken from FEMA and distributed to other sectors in homeland security. This is just another problem of FEMA becoming a part of the U. S. bureaucracy. How would anyone expect an organization to do their job when they have had significant funds and resources cut? Clearly part of FEMA’s inadequacies can be linked to President Bush’s choice to make tax cuts and cut parts of their program. Again, the reorganization of FEMA was really detrimental. Hopefully in the future leaders will make more conscientious choices about which agencies should be cut back. Most would believe a disaster relief program such as FEMA should have some of the most funding and personnel available. Apparently former President Bush thought otherwise. Although President Bush does deserves a little bit of a break considering â€Å"the sheer size and complexity of the executive branch. There is so much going on, in so many agencies, involving the activity of tens of thousands of people, that simply keeping abreast of it all is no easy task† (Greenberg & Page, 2009, Ch. 13). He is in charge of so much in the U. S. there is no way he could keep an eye on everything. So while the President may have indirectly affected FEMA by inducing budget cuts, he cannot be held directly responsible for the government’s lack of involvement in Katrina at the national level. The president relies on his appointees to do their jobs, which Director Brown did not fulfill. However, President Bush choose Michael Brown, so maybe Bush is in fact responsible for FEMA’s inadequacies. Obviously having a large federal bureaucracy is an inconvenience to say the least. I believe Hurricane Katrina has taught our country a few lessons. First of all that while having a federal bureaucracy has its pluses, it also brings with it it’s many flaws, and the main one being communication. Our government should be striving for interoperability. The ability for several groups at all levels of the government to communicate what resources are needed during a natural disaster will prove to be the single most important tool during a relief operation. I hope that in the future, Presidents will choose more wisely when filling high-level positions such as FEMA Director, and not just appoint those who helped with their campaign. I also hope more cities around the country have better evacuation plans than those of New Orleans. I hope National Guard buildings are better equipped with resources and manpower in the future, especially along costal areas that are known to have hurricanes.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Banning Smoking in public places

Banning Smoking in public places Banning Smoking in public places Have you ever stopped to think about the dangers of smoking? Did you ever put in your consideration about other people who are affected by your smoking? Many people think that smoking gives them the feeling of satisfaction and happiness. Other people thinks that smoking makes the to calm down when they are angry, but all of this is nonsense. Smoking is a picked up as a habit by the youth in an unusual way. This habit risks their life and makes them prone to dreadful diseases. So if you are keen to kill yourself, then it’s your own choice, but, your freedom ends when other people’s freedom begins. Smoking is a very dangerous activity done by most of the people around the world which causes several health, environmental, and social problems. As a result, the WHO decided to pass a law to prohibit smoking in public places to protect people and the environment from the dangers of smoking. Heavy smokers are likely to health problems which the y can’t figure it out until it reaches a late stage. Researches made by scientists proofed that tobacco is one of the most addictive substances on earth. Every cigarette a smoker smokes supplies the body with great amounts of carcinogen and hazardous chemical substances. â€Å"A heavy smoker, who usually consume from 1 to 2 packs of cigarettes per day inhales 150,000 dose of poisonous smoke yearly.† [1]These Toxic compounds are formed when tobacco reacts with fire. Therefore Nicotine and the other dangerous chemicals formed while smoking are the most harmful things in cigarettes which causes severe health problems. Another Dangerous health problem caused by smoking is Lung Cancer. This is because cigarettes contain over 80 different cancer-causing substances. Scientists showed that these substances could damage the body’s DNA and change their characteristics. This process leads the cells to grow and multiply out of control causing blockage in vital areas in the lung. A smoker could avoid all of these problems and live at ease just by giving up smoking. The pollution caused by cigarettes does not stop in our bodies or the air; it also affects the land we live on and the water that we drink. Millions of cigarette butts are thrown onto the ground every day. They finally end up in the rivers and lakes where fish and animals -by mistake- eat them and quite often die from it. The rest are left on the ground to decompose which will take an average of 25 years while all of the chemicals and additives leach into the ground and pollute the soil and the plants. If you are going to smoke please consider this information before your throw your cigarette butts on the ground. It looks unattractive, it is a major fire hazard in dry weather, and it is extremely harmful to the environment. Another impacting aspect of cigarettes is in producing them. The land used for growing the tobacco all over the world could be used for planting trees or food for starvin g children in the 3rd world’s countries. Tobacco plants are often sprayed with great amounts of harmful pesticides and chemicals as tobacco is very fragile plant and likely to pick up disease. A lot of trees are also used in producing and packing cigarettes. They use 4 miles of paper an hour just for rolling and packaging cigarettes. Every 100 cigaratte produced waste in the other hand a tree. The trees used in the cigarettes could be filtering out the pollutants found in the air instead of being chopped down for manufacturing a new cigarette.