Sunday, September 22, 2019

Outline the key features of utilitarianism Essay Example for Free

Outline the key features of utilitarianism Essay The theory of utilitarianism was developed by and associated by Jeremy Bentham and utilitarianism is a teleological ethical theory where the moral value of an action can be judged by its consequences. Three main philosophers have come up with different types of utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham introducing Act Utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill trying to improve the flaws that he encountered with Bentham’s theory with his Rule Utilitarianism and lastly, Peter Singer with his preference utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is the original and official form of utilitarianism which states that we must on any occasion act in the way which will produce overall consequences better than those that any other act open to us would produce. Therefore, the greatest happiness principle should inform on any act that we undertake. It only focuses on the outcome of the action and not concerned with the motive or intention of the action. Jeremy Bentham, being an hedonist, which he believes that all humans naturally seeks pleasure and tries to avoid pain. He stated â€Å"nature has placed mankind under the government of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure†¦ they govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think. † Therefore, according the Bentham, an action is right if it brought more pleasure and wrong if it produces pain. Once Bentham had established that pleasure and pain were the important qualities to determine the moral values, he then developed the utility principle. The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by its usefulness. Usefulness refers to the amount happiness caused by the action. The theory is known as the greatest happiness principle which is ‘an action is right if it produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people,† believing that this would create happiness, and an intrinsic key to life. The possible consequences of different actions must be measured clearly to establish which option generates the most pleasure and the least pain. He introduced the hedonic calculus to measure the consequences. The Hedonic Calculus has seven different elements which include that intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity and extent of an action. Act Utilitarianism states that the principle of utility should be applied to every individual situation. John Stuart Mill saw Bentham’s theory and tried to improve it in his own way which he introduced Rule Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism teaches that we should establish rules based on the greatest happiness principle and then follow these rules. Therefore there is no need to decide the greatest happiness in every situation because following the rules should in general produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Individual acts can therefore be judged as right or wrong by reference to the rules. Mill’s basic idea was that pleasure of the mind that spirit were more value than pleasure of the body. He believes that higher pleasures are generally more intellectual pleasures such as learning, reading and so on. Whereas, lower pleasures are more sensual pleasures such as eating, drinking, sex, etc. Therefore, reading a book, learning something new would be far superior and preferable as humans can only experience these. He said, â€Å"it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied,† this means that humans are much more capable of experiencing higher pleasures than animals. Therefore, even if humans are dissatisfied their knowledge of such higher pleasure makes their lives better than animals. Rule Utilitarianism can be divided into two sections which is Strong and Weak rule utilitarianism. Strong rule utilitarians always follow these rules no matter what the outcome will be and believe that these rules should never be broken. Weak rule utilitarians however believe that these rules can be broken if more pleasure is produced. Lastly, Peter Singer’s modern version of utilitarianism which is Preference Utilitarianism. Preference utilitarians believe that something is right if it leads the greatest fulfilment of preference for as many as possible. They consider whether a decision is right or wrong by looking whether it fits in with what people would prefer. Peter Singer was concerned about the minorities and felt that they should also be included when considering what is best for everyone. He also believes that animals have preference, not just humans. And this is because they also feel pain and they have a preference to not feel pain.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Process and Outcome Evaluations Essay Example for Free

Process and Outcome Evaluations Essay A Process Evaluation is relatively used to monitor as well as document the planning, implementation, and interrelationship of the components of the proposed project are the focus of the process evaluation. The process evaluations main focus is to assist with the description of program interventions’ development, as well as its activities, also to provide quantitative and qualitative data on many services that are to be rendered and their effectiveness. A Process Evaluation is also responsible to document the acceptability of a specific program within the programs targeted community. An Outcome Evaluation is what is known to be based on the project’s ecological systems social constructionist theoretical orientations and its focus on the peer, family, individual, as well as school domains, the outcome evaluation will provide better understanding to some of the key evaluation questions and its effectiveness. Some examples of process evaluations are: 1. A program that provides addiction recovery services to the communities children ask the clients and their parents to fill out survey forms to specify if the program was helpful for their family to help them to meet specific goals. 2. The children participating in sports work with their coaches to fill out questionnaires about the program services they receive. Examples of an outcome evaluation are: 1. The number of high school students that are graduating goes up after the school implements an after school program to assist children struggling with grades 2. The city was able to increase its funding to the school from $3,000 to 15,000 after implementation of the after school program showed  improved graduation References Yuen, F., Terao, K. (2003). Practical grant writing and program evaluation. . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Table Manners Cultural Differences

Table Manners Cultural Differences Thesis statement: All of us know that diet is very important in our daily life. It can can reflect a nations tradition and culture. However, each country in which geographical, environmental, and cultural and ethnic customs, which has a different concept of diet and dietary practices, and ultimately the formation of the differences in diet culture. Of cause, the table manners appear in our life everyday. They are witness of the history of dietary cultures for thousands of years, are the sign that a country or nation from ignorance and backward towards civilization and progress. Research achievement has a lot on the table manners, and in this passage, the author will stress on the analysis of their differences and the formation cause of the differences. Abstract: The different of the philosophical thoughts and the various kinds of social factors make some differences in Chinese and Western table manners. In China, a banquet, whatever the purpose, there will be a kind of form. Everyone sitting around the table and the delicacy is put in the center of the table. Not only it is a good taste, but also it is a communication medium for people. People toast each other and let food each other. It embodies the mutual respect and the virtue of humility. This way is easy to communicate with others. However, the western table manners are more cumbersome and canonical. Every people has his own service plate, no matter what dish has, they eat by themselves. Westerners drink also depend on their own thoughts, such as Whisky, Cocktails, Brandy, they can drink what they like. It embodies the respect of personal willingness. In this paper, we will talk about Chinese and western table manners and finding out the reasons. The purpose is to improve our intercultural communication ability by means of doing the research on the differences dietary culture between China and west in table manners. 1. Introduction In the 21st century, intercultural communication has become an indispensable content in peoples life. Cooking culture and table manners play a significant role of nonverbal culture in cross-cultural communication. Because of the Chinese people and Westerners have different life styles, the way of thinking, culture, so the table manners between china and western also show a big difference. Chinese table manners have a long history, At the time of the ancient times, table manners had a quite complete system. They took an important part in the past and still have a deep influence in the modern society. Western table manners originated in the 20 century. Italian culture came to France, table manners and menu turned to be more elegant and delicate, from that time, books of etiquette are published gradually. Today, table etiquette is still spreading in Western countries. The table manners in Western countries have influence on Chinese table manners because of the communication. In order to protect our table culture, we can make the two table manners get together, which is good for us to communicate with foreigners. So, it is necessary for us to know the differences of the two table manners and analyze the causes of the different the two table manners between Chinese and Western. 2. The importance of table manners in international cultural communication As Chinese reform and opening quicken markedly, international cultural communication also increases quickly. We must be willing to communicate and be tolerant of views that differ from our own. Our abilities are improved according to international communication. In the society, we do many things successfully on table. For example, when we meet important person, or we have important thing, we could ask the relevant people to have dinner, and discuss on the table. So we must know the table manners. Moreover, if we have a dinner with the Westerners, we should understand the Western table manners well. Because the Western table manners is different from Chinese. On the table, no matter what country the people come from, they could feel the respect from the table manners. Today, transnational cultural communication is so frequent that table manners become more and more important. Not only the whole dining process more harmonious but also status of customers more obvious and their communic ation more convenient by the table manners. For foreign language learners, it is quite useful to know the differences of Chinese and western dietary culture. We can not only increase the understanding of the table manners culture, but also improve the success of intercultural communication, which can help to avoid misunderstandings and communication disorder because of inappropriate behavior. 3. The differences table manners between China and Western countries 3.1 The differences in arrival of time When talking about the time, the Chinese and Westerners have different views. In China, we dont pay much attention on the time. We dont have specific demands about arrival time. To arrive earlier, on time or a little late are all allowed. In fact, we often get to the place where we have a dinner at a litter late time. Because most of us think the host should wait for guest and it is a way to respect for others. The Westerners think both of the time and money are very important, so they always make time and money bonded together. There is a saying goes said that Time is money , and the saying goes has become deeply in the Westerners mind. Therefore, they cherish as far as possible, they plan and manage their time carefully. The Westerners are often filled with a sense of urgency of time. All of them have a interest that they go to some parties in free time. If the westerners have to go to somewhere to have a dinner with others, they must arrive there on time. Frequently, when they want to have a dinner at ones home, they usually get earlier for five minutes. In their opinion, it is not very polite for you to get much earlier, maybe the hostess is so busy doing preparation for the dinner that is not suitable for you to reach at that time. 3.2 The differences in seating arrangement Both in China and in the west, people are particular in seating arrangement of formal banquette. In the Chinese banquets, we prefer to the round table . If there is just a round table in the family dinner, it has no table order. If we join a formal dinner, our seating should comply with the rule. Traditionally, Chinese use square table and the seats, which is look towards to the door is the most important, while seats on both sides are partial seats. So, the elderly and the guests of honor or high status should sit at the seat facing the main door. Then guest of honor sit on the right of the host and deputy chief gust on the left. While, as for the dinning of less than five people, its table setting can follow those four rules: right is honor and the left is low; the middle seat is senior; the seat of facing the door is the top; flexibility arrangement. In Western countries, people usually use long table. Host and hostess sit at both ends, and the guests of honor sit besides them. Then ordinary guests sit along with them. That is to say, the one who is more nearer to the host, the more important he is. In the informal party, it follows that women is first. Seat arrangement should treat the hostess as benchmark, and the most important guests should sit at the upper right of the hostess and the wife of him sitting at the upper right of the host. If a man and a woman have a diner, the man should let the woman sit on his right and dont let she sit near to the passageway; anyway the man need to let the woman sit inside. When two people have a dinner, the senior sit inside.When two men with a woman, men should let woman sit in the middle place. Besides, men should remove the chairs and let women sit first. In a word, women are very important in the seating arrangement. 3.3 The differences in tableware As everyone know people use chopsticks in China, and chopsticks are the most significant tableware for Chinese. Usually, they are traditionally held in the right hand, even by left-handed people. Although chopsticks may now be deployed by either hand, left-handed chopstick use is considered improper. Besides, there are also some rules to abide by when using it. For example, before dinner, chopsticks must be put on the right of rice bowl tidily. While after the meal, it should be placed in the middle of rice bowl, and when talking with other people, we should put down our chopsticks. It is a polite action to others. When take food for others, we ought to use the public chopsticks. In Western countries, people use knives and forks. When eating western-style food, a knife should be held in the right hand and a fork should be held in left hand. Whats more, the different ways knives and forks place have different meanings. For example, you have to leave for a while when you have a meal, you can put the knife and fork separately as a triangle. The service person will not receive your plate. If you have already finished the meal, you should make the knife and fork parallelled. Bread is taken in the fingers and laid on the side of plate or the edge of the large plate. It is never taken with a fork. Butter is taken from the butter dish with the butter knife and placed on the side of plate, not on ones bread. Well, Chinese use chopsticks and westerners use knives and forks. However, they also represent the difference between both collectivism and individualism. Westerners use knives and forks to cut food and separate it to represent individualism. The Chinese use chops ticks to grasp the entire food to mean unity and collectivism. 3.4 The differences in order of serving Chinese order of serving: the first are cold dishes, beverage and wine; then the hot dishes; next staple food; at last the sweets and fruit. Sometimes, there are many tables, each table should be on every dish at the same time. The order of serving still keep the traditional, first hot and later cold. Besides, hot dishes should be served from the left side opposite the seat of the guest of honot. The dishes like whole chicken, whole duck, and whole fish cant put their heads and tails toward the host seat. In the banquet, each dish like slide show, each time a dish is served. Nevertheless, there are some tips: in the wedding banquet or other red banquet, the plates on the table can be overlapped, and meaning that a good thing comes again and again. While, in the White Banquet like funeral, the plates cannot be overlapped, I think you can guess the reason. Western serving steps are usually like that: bread and butter, cold dishes, soup, seafood, main course, dessert, coffee and fruit. When you eating the cold dishes, the soup and bread should be eaten at the same time. In Western, the cold dishes are known as appetizer dish, served as the first course to eat with an aperitif. And soup includes stains soup and cream soup. The main course has chicken, beef, fish and pork and so on. The dissert always has ice-cream, pudding etc. 3.5 The differences in having dinner on table In China, food should be taken by the guest firstly. If you want to eat some food, you could not take too much. The men could give service to women. When you take food, you could not glance left and right and you could not choose one by one in the public dishes. If you eat with many people, you could have comity with everyone. The food which you want to eat and you cant take, you should ask other people to help you to take. Please avoid leaving seat to take by yourself. Chinese table manners atmosphere is lively, people like chatting over eating. Your utterance should be elegant, scholarly and euphemistic. But talking and laughing loudly is not polite. While eating, the older is first, when a dish served, the young can t eat until the elder eat. Chinese table s atmosphere is lively, people like chatting over eating. But talking and laughing loudly is not polite. hen a person has a cough, he or she should turn his or her back. Before you have a drink, you should drink a toast to the e lder and the guest. In West, men should move the seat for women. People always talk with their neighbors when eating, they dont talk loudly. Usually, people have a talk after the main food that the time of they eat dessert. Using the knife and folk cant make a sound. They do not use their own utensils for others to take their food; do not cut food on a plate after a good use of all right hand fork to eat; do not put the bones and food that dont eat on the floor or on the tablecloth, while put them on the on the plate of iceberg. Besides, the polite way is eating out the food on your plate. 3.6 The differences in leaving the table In China, only can the master sign the end of banquet. After the master and guest leave seat, the other guests can leave. Then, the master should be to see guests off at the gate, and the guests should express their thanks to the master. If the guests want to goodbye to host in the midway of the banquet, they just say good-bye to the master or give a nod as a signal to others. At the end of the banquet in Western countries, people should pick up the napkin from the leg, fold optionally, put the napkin on left of the table, and then get up for leaving. After having a meal, the host and hostess should leave before the other guests leave. When leaving, people should help elders or ladies to move the seats, and thank to the master when they say goodbye. If you want to be more cautious, you can thank by phone or card again. The causes of different table manners between the West and China 4.1 The different cultural connotations Culture will affect peoples view on things. Different country has its different culture, so it is obviously that the thinking model between China and western are different. The Chinese culture pays more attention on ones intuition, and the Western culture leans to logic and analyze. As to the traditional of the culture, Chinese people especially believe their own intuition. They insist the experience and feeling during the thing, this phenomenon also happens in the communication between west and east. In China, thousands of cultural tradition is reflected in Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. The Confucian thought mainly emphasized benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, faith; Taoists advocated natural and clean; Buddhist is advocated merciful, purdue beings, harmony without. From this we see that what is tasty to a host may not necessarily be tasty to his guest. Because people have different opinions about various ingredients and cooking methods. It is rather easy to misjudg e what someone considers to be the best dish. Forcing a guest to eat food he doesnt like is quite awkward. However, Western countries assert democracy, freedom, equality, and advocated personal power, put emphasis up on personal value, paysattention to individualism. We have to learn from the American literature that the theme of American Dream is an important indication in the American literature history. It means that Americans wish to succeed through their self-dependence and self-reliance. They believe that they are created by God and that they are endowed with special traits which will help them to become the kind of people they wish to be. So this culture connotation can also be reflected in the table cultures. They respect freedom. So there are not so many rules as in Chinese table setting. They behave freely. 4.2 The different way of thinking Compared with western thinking model, the eastern idea is blanket and unclearly. The Chinese thought is more comprehensive and integrated. Traditional perceptual intuition thinking including the doctrine of the thought in Chinese style. The essence of the idea emphasize harmonization or even cancel with extreme solution to the problem. The Chinese psychological bias for comprehensive, logical analysis. The simple integral concept and unified way of thinking reflects our national macro understanding and the ability to transform the world. The west emphasizes analysis and partial logic thinking, and emphasizes its own characteristics. For scientific thinking of the standard, this kind of thinking mode in the real world in present multidimensional nature. At the same time, in western countries, and always put the value of the individual in important position, the principle of the supremacy of outstanding individualism. 4.3 The different behaviors regulation Behaviors regulation means the single standard, which the society can accept. That means that something can tell people what is the right way to solve this matter and what is unsuitable to do. When different background culture people do communication with each other, they usually judge the rationality by own code of conduct. So it is inevitable for them to misunderstand others. And whats more, it will destroy the friendship between people. For example: In China, it is kind to pat childrens head, but it is a very terrible thing in the western country. They think it is unexpected thing to a child. If you do like this, his parents will get very angry for it. And the other different thing: In China, men always smoke after they finish the meals, they think it is a kind of enjoyment. Nevertheless, in western countries, they consider this behavior is not polite to women and children and it is also a rude thing to smoke on a table. So, it is very important for us to recognize and use the dif ferent regulation behavior when we do business or have communication between foreign countries. In order to ensure the communication will be smoothly, you should understand each others conduct. Especially remember the forbidden things and impolite things. The best way is when in Rome, do as the Romans. 4.4 The different values Value is the core of culture and the most appropriate criteria what is used to evaluate the behaviors, things and make choices from all possible targets by social members. Values are the reflection of peoples social existence, people in the same natural environment and social environment will have the same values. Therefore, every society and country is using their own recognized values. In the dinner table etiquette, peoples behavior is a microcosm of the national values and the corresponding behavior under the guidance of different values. In a state of ceremonies like China, emphasizes loyalty and filial piety, reflects the values of collectivism. Chinese people respect the aged and take good care of children, therefore, seating arrangements are very regular, seats not only have upper and lower grades, but also the specific seat sorting. For western countries, the individualism values occupy the dominant position and individual power of each person is reflected. This is because in the philosophy of Westerners, it tends to focus on individualism, personality development and self-expression. They think that if a person is not up to his purpose, which is not because of the destiny but their own laziness and their lack of fighting spirit. Western people put into practice individual dining system, each of them eat their own tableware and choose their own favorite food. So, in western, there will not appear the situation like eating the food reluctantly served by the hosts in China. Conclusion Different countries and different people have different manners. We should have a good knowledge about other customs so that they will not think us are ill-mannered. When exploring the differences in communication manners and customs, we set them mainly into three parts: manner and culture, communication manner and table manner. Considering the roots of these differences, Historical and regional causes might took the significant places. Therefore, a cross culture environment and a cross culture mind do lead to the better understanding in todays communication. In modern society, along with the development of the open policy, it seems that the world is getting smaller and smaller so that people are very active with frequent exchanges. With the constant deepening of integration of the world, we should pay more attention to etiquette among people. In particular, the importance of the table manners is more prominent. Consequently, we should admit these differences in cross-cultural commun ication, and understand and respect it as well. The key of successful intercultural communication is to have a correct attitude to deal with cultural differences. It is to understand and respect other countries culture that is the necessary condition to avoid cultural conflict, realize equal association and cooperate successfully. So as the graduate students, we must based on the requirement of the labor market. We will enter the society later, and before this we must get the full preparation of being a good worker. Only do we learn the different culture and practice it, we could find a good job quickly and do right things during the communication. By doing this can we make our work easier to be handled. If we can understand the manners better, we can know others better.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Ibm History :: essays research papers

1890-1938: The early years IBM was incorporated in the state of New York on June 15, 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. But its origins can be traced back to 1890, during the height of the Industrial Revolution, when the United States was experiencing waves of immigration. The U.S. Census Bureau knew its traditional methods of counting would not be adequate for measuring the population, so it sponsored a contest to find a more efficient means of tabulating census data. The winner was Herman Hollerith, a German immigrant and Census Bureau statistician, whose Punch Card Tabulating Machine used an electric current to sense holes in punch cards and keep a running total of data. Capitalizing on his success, Hollerith formed the Tabulating Machine Co. in 1896. In 1911, Charles R. Flint, a noted trust organizer, engineered the merger of Hollerith's company with two others, Computing Scale Co. of America and International Time Recording Co. The combined Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co., or C-T-R, manufactured and sold machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers and, of course, tabulators and punch cards. Based in New York City, the company had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, N.Y.; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Mich.; Washington, D.C., and Toronto, Canada. When the diversified businesses of C-T-R proved difficult to manage, Flint turned for help to the former No. 2 executive at the National Cash Register Co., Thomas J. Watson. In 1914, Watson, age 40, joined the company as general manager. The son of Scottish immigrants, Watson had been a top salesman at NCR, but left after clashing with its autocratic leader, John Henry Patterson. However, Watson did adopt some of Patterson's more effective business tactics: generous sales incentives, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker. Watson boosted company spirit with employee sports teams, family outings and a company band. He preached a positive outlook, and his favorite slogan, "THINK," became a mantra for C-T-R's employees. Watson also stressed the importance of the customer, a lasting IBM tenet. He understood that the success of the client translated into the success of his company, a belief that, years later, manifested itself in the popular adage, "Nobody was ever fired for buying from IBM." Within 11 months of joining C-T-R, Watson became its president. The company focused on providing large-scale, custom-built tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Origins Of The Computer :: essays research papers

The Origins of the Computer This report is to be distributed freely and not to be sold for profit ect. This report can be modifyed as long as you keep in mind that you didn't write it. And you are not to hand in this report claiming credit for it heheh.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Roman Empire, founded by Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in Western Europe for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and economics. Almost the entirety of the civilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, and independence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe and the Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with public amenities previously unheard of courts, theaters, circuses, and public baths. And these were now large permanent masonry buildings as were the habitations, tall apartment houses covering whole city blocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This architectural revolution brought about by the Romans required two innovations: the invention of a new building method called concrete vaulting and the organization of labor and capital on a large scale so that huge projects could be executed quickly after the plans of a single master architect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roman concrete was a fluid mixture of lime and small stones poured into the hollow centers of walls faced with brick or stone and over curved wooden molds, or forms, to span spaces as vaults. The Mediterranean is an active volcanic region, and a spongy, light, tightly adhering stone called pozzolana was used to produce a concrete that was both light and extremely strong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Romans had developed potsalana concrete about 100 B.C. but at first used it only for terrace walls and foundations. It apparently was emperor Nero who first used the material on a grand scale to rebuild a region of the city of Rome around his palace, the expansive Domus Aurea, after the great fire of AD 64 which he said to have set. Here broad streets, regular blocks of masonry apartment houses, and continuous colonnaded porticoes were erected according to a single plan and partially at state expense. The Domus Aurea itself was a labyrinth of concrete vaulted rooms, many in complex geometric forms. An extensive garden with a lake and forest spread around it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The architect Severus seems to have been in charge of this great project. Emperors and emperors' architects succeeding Nero and Severus continued and expanded their work of rebuilding and regularizing Rome. Vespasian (emperor AD 63-79) began the Colosseum. Which I have a model bad of. Built by prisoners from the Jewish wars the 50,000 Colosseum is one of the most intresting architectural The Origins Of The Computer :: essays research papers The Origins of the Computer This report is to be distributed freely and not to be sold for profit ect. This report can be modifyed as long as you keep in mind that you didn't write it. And you are not to hand in this report claiming credit for it heheh.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Roman Empire, founded by Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in Western Europe for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and economics. Almost the entirety of the civilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, and independence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe and the Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with public amenities previously unheard of courts, theaters, circuses, and public baths. And these were now large permanent masonry buildings as were the habitations, tall apartment houses covering whole city blocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This architectural revolution brought about by the Romans required two innovations: the invention of a new building method called concrete vaulting and the organization of labor and capital on a large scale so that huge projects could be executed quickly after the plans of a single master architect.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roman concrete was a fluid mixture of lime and small stones poured into the hollow centers of walls faced with brick or stone and over curved wooden molds, or forms, to span spaces as vaults. The Mediterranean is an active volcanic region, and a spongy, light, tightly adhering stone called pozzolana was used to produce a concrete that was both light and extremely strong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Romans had developed potsalana concrete about 100 B.C. but at first used it only for terrace walls and foundations. It apparently was emperor Nero who first used the material on a grand scale to rebuild a region of the city of Rome around his palace, the expansive Domus Aurea, after the great fire of AD 64 which he said to have set. Here broad streets, regular blocks of masonry apartment houses, and continuous colonnaded porticoes were erected according to a single plan and partially at state expense. The Domus Aurea itself was a labyrinth of concrete vaulted rooms, many in complex geometric forms. An extensive garden with a lake and forest spread around it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The architect Severus seems to have been in charge of this great project. Emperors and emperors' architects succeeding Nero and Severus continued and expanded their work of rebuilding and regularizing Rome. Vespasian (emperor AD 63-79) began the Colosseum. Which I have a model bad of. Built by prisoners from the Jewish wars the 50,000 Colosseum is one of the most intresting architectural

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Characteristics of Business Leadership

Characteristics of Business Leadership BUS302-024016 October 30, 2011 Characteristics of Business Management The purpose of this paper is to show a comparison of two successful businesses. Borders Books and Amazon. com are two companies that both sold books but used different methods in operating their businesses. Even though they both were successful businesses, both companies had different leadership styles, visions and goals. Out of the two businesses, only one remain successful and present today. In this paper, I will show how both businesses started, how the leaders differ in leadership styles and techniques, and how Amazon continues to be a great success today. Description of the Businesses I will describe each business and how each business started. I will also describe three main challenges each company faced while establishing or running the business. Amazon. com was founded in 1994 by Jeff Bezos as an online bookstore. As CEO he has built it into the largest retailer on the web, selling everything from groceries to electronics and shoes. Jeff Bezos was working in a quantitive analysis group at an investment firm, when he saw an opportunity to sell books on the internet. In 1994 he went on a cross-country drive from New York to Seattle to start Amazon. He typed his business plan as he went. And he picked up $300,000 dollars from his parents in Fort Worth, Texas. He set up his business in his garage and began selling books via the internet. His business became worth $4. 4 billion according to Forbes' latest billionaire rankings in 2009. Since the start of Amazon. om, Jeff Bezos came very close to failure. The company was on the brink of bankruptcy. Jeff Bezos lost a total of $550 million in startup cost by November 1999. But inspite of that, Time magazine named Jeff Bezos † Person of the year† a month later. Borders Books was founded by Louis Borders, who was the leader of Borders Books and got his start in Ann Arbor Michigan in 1971. Louis Borders and his brother Tom Borders opened a used bookstore, accord ing to the book eBoys by Randall Stross. Louis Borders had a degree in math from the University of Michigan. In his store, he went to work designing artificial intelligence software for managing the inventory of a supersize bookstore, and by doing so made opening more bookstores possible. For fifteen years he and his brother operated Border Books in Ann Arbor and sold software to other stores. Borders started opening more stores. In 1988, Borders recruited Robert DiRomualdo to lead the company's expansion. Roberts DiRomualdo was later credited with leading the company's rise to national prominence in the 1990s. In 1992, Kmart Corp; which bought Waldenbooks in 1984, purchased the 21-store chain for an estimated $190 million , the New York Times reported at that time. Once sold, Border Books went through several changes including the name changing to Borders Group Inc. and changes in CEOs. Between January 1998 to January 1999 Borders expanded by adding 52 superstores. This was the biggest one-year expansion in its history. By January 1999, the company had 256 superstores averaging $256 in sales per square foot. In May 1998, Borders launched an online presence for the first time. Borders had several different CEOs until Mike Edwards became interim CEO in January of 2010. Leadership Styles This paragraph will explain the leaders' leadership styles and discuss how they have adapted to cultural differences and how they operates their businesses effectively in global markets. Mike Edwards became interim CEO of Borders in January 2010. This was a time when sales were already at a decline and the company had already been close to filing bankruptcy but avoided it by cutting costs and conserving cash. The company was already at an organizational decline. Prior to him becoming CEO, Borders had already lauched an online presence for the first time in May 1998. Since then, severing ties with Amazon, the company launched a new Borders. com. So after Mike Edwards was named CEO of subsidiary Borders Inc. in June 2010, Borders launched e-book store, started selling e-readers and set strategies to get 17 percent market share in e-books within a year. Doing this online business was with a hope to increase sales nationally and globally. But I believe a mistake was made by continuing to run the business somewhat the same, but just cutting cost. Mike Edwards didn't make the changes necessary o adapt to cultural differences and was not able to operate the business effectively in global markets. Previously Borders had business base in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore but had to sell off its business in those areas. Due to the condition Borders was in when Edwards came on as CEO, didn't allow for a great chance of bouncing back from their losse s. Mike Edwards' style was to hurry and cut cost and to do quickly what he could to save the company. Really, he had no choice but to do this quickly. Jeff Bezos has a style of having a customer-focused culture and he continues to use the leadership methods they have used for years. He makes it difficult for some publicly traded companies to have the right strategy. He makes sure that Amazon. com follows different strategies to acquire business but at the same time adapting to any cultural differences that take place. He operates the business by reaching out to different global areas through his web based business. Jeff Bezos make sure he keeps up with the competition by changing the company's strategies quickly to adapt to any changes in technology, customer needs and competition. He believes that experimenting different things will attract different cultures. Jeff Bezos believes that cultures are very stable. New people who come to the company may stay or leave. But he states that overtime, you build up this momentum around a culture that is self-perpetuating. This is a way to adjust to to different cultural differnces as well. Leadership, Management, and Motivation Management is getting work done through others efficiently and effectively. Leading involves inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals. Jeff Bezos, who founded Amazon. com in 1994, states that his view is that every company requires a long-term view. He feels that if you're going to take a long-term orientation, you have to be willing to stay heads down and ignore a wide array of critics, even well-meaning critics. If you don't have a willingness to be misundertood for a long period of time, then you can't have a long-term orientation. He also states that you're also gonna have to have a willingness to repeatedly fail if you're gonna experiment. For some, this is a exciting and motivating culture. Also, he no longer makes all the plans. He has a group called the S Team that (Senior Team) which stays abreast of what the company is doing. This team meets for about four hours every Tuesday. And once or twice a year the S team gets together in a tw-day meeting to explore ideas. This is an example of group decision making. On the other hand, Mike Edwards' focus was to stick to the business plan that he said works. He stated that they were fighting to the end and hoping that a reorganization plan would be approved. By cutting back and closing some stores would help Borders to exit bankruptcy. He did state that Borders mistake was to open so many stores. He immediatley took action and began an aggressive cost-cutting plan to close stores and lay-off workers. Leader’s Impact Jeff Bezos made an impact on the world by allowing customers worldwide via the web to purchase books, and everything from groceries, electronics and shoes and more. This allowed customers to shop from the comfort of their own home. This was a great convenience for customers around the globe. Also, Louis Borders vision had an impact on the world as well. When Borders and his brother Tom started Borders Books, Louis Bothers took his knowledge and designed artificial intelligience that would later benefit other stores by selling them the software to use for their businesses as well. Boarder Books stores allowed customers to purchase all types of books and also to have an peaceful environment to enjoy reading their books. Borders Books later intergrated music and movies into some of their stores. Even though Mike Edwards didn't become CEO of subsidairy Borders Inc. until June 2010, he made an impact on the internal structure by taking drastic measures to save the company by closing alot of the stores and laying-off employees. This not only affected the employees but the consumers who shopped at Borders as well. All these drastic actions also affected the morale of the employees and stores that remained until Borders announced it's liquidation in July 2011. } References Bomey, Nathan (2011). Borders' rise and fall: a timeline of the bookstore chain's 40-year history. http://Ann Arbor. com/business-review/Borders-rise-and-fall-a-timeline-of-the-bookstore-chains-40-year-history Bomey, Nathan (2011). Exclusive interview with Borders

Monday, September 16, 2019

International Globalization Marketing Plan of Batik Essay

Our mission is to establish a Global Batik Boutique industry with world-class quality in fashion design to support corporate clients and stylist society of upper market. We would like to be known as an industry driven by social values. We strive to be a â€Å"Choice of Retailer† in developing long-term Batik business relationships with our customers, which are founded on our ability to help identify the style-fashion and recommend the best wares and look’s for our customers. We strive for continuous improvement in providing â€Å"New Design† and â€Å"Good Quality† materials selection through a â€Å"Right-on-Time † fashion delivery. Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd need to grow their revenue by exporting Batik products and expanding into new markets segmentation. With faster communication, transportation and financial flows, the company is planning penetrate into United Kingdom Consumer market on establishment of Batik made garment products . 1. 0 Company Background Batek Empat Kawan Sdn Bhd (BEK Sdn Bhd ) is a Malaysian owned company, a batik fashion and boutique consulting firm head quarters in Cyberjaya, Malaysia, specializing in all kind of batik design garment products. BEK Sdn Bhd incorporated in 2001, has an Sales Office and Manufacturing plant at Kajang.